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Central Asia Tours with Roxana Tours

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 Central Asia being situated in the heart of Eurasian Continent had always played an important role in the history of humankind. This is the area of biggest deserts, highest mountain ranges and barren steppes where humans had to survive generation after generation, in the course of millenniums. The archeological excavations finds, which you may  see during Central Asia Tours, proved the existence of first humanoids on the territory of present day Uzbekistan at least 1.5 million years ago.
 Two biggest rivers, Amudarya and Syrdarya, along with Zerafshan, Chirchik and others  became the channels of life and water from this rivers was used for irrigation of lands thus creating the centers of some of the oldest civilizations in the history. The migrations of Indo-European nomadic tribes in the 3rd millennium BC, was very important period in the history of Central Asia. As a result of it the first settlements were built on the banks of rivers and oasis areas. Samarkand, Bukhara and Khiva, which were the oldest cities established, are nowadays must-see cities during Central Asia Tours.
Another reason for formation of proto-urban, protected and fortified settlements was the division of local population into settled farmers and nomadic stock-breeders, the latter being a constant threat to the  previous. Sopollitepa settlement situated  in the south of modern Uzbekistan is a good sample dating back to Bronze Age.
The Iron Age was marked in Central Asia by establishment of states which are known today as Khorazm, Baktria and Sogdiana, which were subdued in the 6th century BC by Akhemenid Kings of Ancient Persia and became satrapies, though nominally they were semi-independent and were governed by dynasties of  local aristocracy. After Persia was conquered by Alexander the Great, chasing the last King Darius, Alexander arrived to Bactria and Sogdiana where he spent 2 years, trying to establish his power and peace, in which he succeeded finally after marrying the beautiful Sogdian girl Roxana.  The next two centuries passed under Hellenistic influence. Majority of Central Asia Tours cover the areas of campaigns and routes of Alexander the Great.
From the 2nd century BC until 7th century AD Central Asia was in the sphere of interests   of two greatest empires of that time – China and Iran. This period is marked by heyday of trade along the greatest trade route in the history – Great Silk Road, as it was called many centuries later.  The Sogdians were the people who acted as middlemen, creating their trading colonies from Xian to Constantinople and they have always cept in touch with their home office in Samarkand which is one of the major attractions on Central Asia Tours.
The next period in the history of Central Asia was marked by Arab`s Invasion. The Arabs, newly converted to Islam be Prophet Mohammed, came with the sword in one hand and Koran on the other. The conquest and conversion of Central Asia to Islam took nearly a century.  Later Al Beruny wrote that as a result of slaughter of Zoroastrian priesthood and ideological war after a generation none of the locals could read the old sacred Zoroastrian scripts. The witnesses to all this are well displayed in museums which are part of Central Asia Tours.
But Islam brought not only the new religion. It also brought new ideology, new philosophy and made the Central Asia part of the Greater World after joining to Arab Khalifat, stretching from India to Spain and from Northern Steppes to Africa. Some of the greatest scholars of humanity were born in Central Asia and nowadays the names of  Ibn Sina, Al Beruny, Al Khorazmy and others are known around the world.
The Mongol Invasion in the 13th century changed the map of  anthropological and ethnic types of Central Asia.  The invaders occupied the vast grasslands and plains and indigenous, mostly Sogdian and Bactrian population was trapped in the cities or driven to mountainous areas. The nomadic Turkic tribes who constituted large portion of Mongol Army slowly-slowly started intermixing with Mongols, passing them their language and getting Mongol features for themselves.  The result is evident today. During the Central Asia Tours one can see that  modern Kazakhs, Kyrgyz and Uzbeks of steppe areas have strong Mongoloid type, while urban Uzbeks and Tadjiks have  none or minimal Mongol influence in their features.
Until the beginning of 20th century borders between the states were political but not ethnic. In 1924 only under the Soviets Central Asia was divided into five Soviet  republics and nowadays those are the borders of independent countries which you can visit during Central Asia Tour.



                                                                     

 

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